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Research Guides@Tufts

Citing Sources

Information on the major citation styles and on citation managers, such as EndNote and Zotero.

What are Chicago and Turabian Styles?

Citation styles from the University of Chicago Press. Used in history and political science and in other disciplines within the humanities and social sciences.  Designed for students writing term papers, Turabian is a simplified version of The Chicago Manual of Style.  Note: If you can't find a citation example in the Turabian manual, see Chicago.Cover of Chicago Manual of Syle

Chicago and Turabian provide two style options:

Notes and Bibliography.  Features: Uses footnotes, typically followed by a bibliography.  Facilitates referencing of unusual source types. Used often in the humanities, history, and business. See the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for many examples of footnotes in many formats.

Author-Date System.  Features: In-text parenthetical citations of author(s) last name, publication year, and cited pages, followed by a reference. Used often in the sciences and social sciences.

The citation examples provided below are based on the Chicago Manual's 16th edition, published in 2010; the Chicago Q&A website provides additional information and clarifications.

Citation Manuals:

Citation Examples: Books

The examples provided below apply to the Chicago Notes-Bibliography option.  The second line is usually indented 5 spaces.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Single author
Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago:
    University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Two or three authors
Kernighan, Brian W., and Dennis M. Ritchie. The C Programming Language.
    Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978.

Editor or compiler as author
von Hallberg, Robert, ed. Canons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Article or chapter in a book
Beech, Mary Higdon. “The Domestic Realm in the Lives of Hindu Women in
    Calcutta.”  In Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia, edited
    by Hanna Papnanek and Gail Minaul, 110-38. Delhi: Chanakya, 1982.

Citation Examples: Periodicals

The examples provided below apply to the Chicago Notes-Bibliography option.

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical vol# (Year): Pages.

Article in a scholarly journal
Jackson, Richard. "Running Down the Up-Escalator: Regional Inequality in Papua
    New Guinea." Australian Geographer 14 (1979): 175-84.

Entire issue or special section of a journal
Good, Thomas, ed. “Non-subject-matter Outcomes of Schooling.” Special issue,
    Elementary School Journal 99, no. 5 (1999).

Article in a popular magazine
Weber, Bruce. "The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of Novelist E. L. Doctorow." U.S.
    News and World Report, October 1985, 42.

Article in a newspaper
Camille, Andre. "Deciding Who Gets Dibs on Health-Care Dollars." Wall Street Journal,
    (March 27, 1984): Section 1.

Periodical published annually
Wilson, G. M. 1917. A Survey of the Social Business Use of Arithmetic. In Sixteenth
    Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education
, 20-22. Bloomington
     IL. Public School Publishing Co.

Citation Examples: Electronic Resources

The examples provided below apply to the Chicago Notes-Bibliography option.

Note:  Internet sources often don't provide the extensive citation information that most print sources do.  Therefore, include as much information as possible such as author/sponsor, website title, and URL. Many web resources are created by an institution or organization (a "corporate author") rather than an individual.

World Wide Web

Apple Computer. "QuickTime Pro 7.7 - Technical Specifications."
    Apple Computer Support. Last modified November 8, 2012. Accessed
    January 3, 2011. http://support.apple.com/kb/SP521.

Mortimer, Gail. “The William Faulkner Society Home Page.”

Article From A Library Database

Haglund, David, and Tudor Onea. "Victory without Triumph: Theodore Roosevelt,
    Honour, and the Alaska Panhandle Boundary Dispute." Diplomacy & Statecraft 19,
    no. 1 (2008): 20-41. doi:10.1080/09592290801913692 .

Blog Entry

Catherine Austin Fitts’ Blog. http://solari.com/blog/?p=3620.

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