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Research Guides@Tufts

Citing Sources

Information on the major citation styles and on citation managers, such as EndNote and Zotero.

Nifty EndNote Features

See the EndNote documentation for more on these features:

  • Customization of import filters and bibliographic output styles.
  • Ability to grab PDFs versions of references using the OpenURL resolver link.
  • 100s of manuscript templates from major journal publishers.
  • Memorized sorts and searches.
  • Groups for organizing subsets of references.
  • Linked images for tracking illustrations.


EndNote and Mathematical Notation

Working with mathematical notations and equations is always a challenge; these figures require special typesetting tools to be properly formatted.  This creates workflow challenges when working with EndNote and Word Processors.  Some options (if you are prepared to use additional tools):

Creating Bibliographies within EndNote

In EndNote, you can compile a few or all of your references in bibliographies, formatted according to your own preferred citation style.  To create an independent, stand-alone bibliography, you have the following options:

  • For a basic print bibliography, select your target output style from the Styles pull-down menu and select the references you want to print.  Then select File menu > Print Preview.  Click the Print Button at the top of the screen to print the bibliography.
  • For more control over the content and formatting of the bibliography, select File menu > Export and save your bibliography in Rich Text Format (RTF).  You can edit the file in Word or another word-processor.
  • To create more complex bibliographies and reports, such as a bibliography organized by sub-topics or journals, use the Tools menu > Subject Bibliography... option.

EndNote Training on YouTube

Official EndNote training videos are available on the EndNote YouTube Training Channel. Tutorials are available in English, Portuguese, and Spanish.

Using Cite While You Write (CWYW)

The EndNote Cite-While-You-Write (CWYW) utility lets you insert citations from your EndNote Library directly into your papers as (depending on the citation style you select) in-text citations, footnotes, or endnotes.  From these inserted citations, CWYW automatically generates a properly formatted bibliography.

CWYW is a Macro originally designed to work with Microsoft Word (although it now works with other word-processors, depending on the EndNote version and platform you use).  When installed, the CWYW toolbar will appear in your Word installation and as options in the Word Tools menu.  You can access EndNote Library citations from this toolbar and you can select citations from within EndNote and click the Insert Citation button to insert them into your documents.

Information on CWYW compatibility with various wordprocessors for both Macintosh and Windows platforms is available from the EndNote website.

For situations where CWYW is not an option, EndNote provides a feature called Format Paper, which is detailed in the EndNote Manual.

Important!  Always apply CWYW and Format Paper techniques to a copy of your document.  And if you are sending your paper to another person or to another computer (which lacks your EndNote installation), use the Remove Field Codes command to convert EndNote references to regular Word text or else create a Traveling Library to accompany your document.  Reading the EndNote Manual sections on these tools prior to using them is recommended.

Tutorials are available (in multiple languages) on using CWYW on the EndNote YouTube channel.

Tips and Tricks

  • To use CWYW, macros must be enabled in your Microsoft Word setup.
  • Conflicts can occur if you try to use both CWYW and the RefWorks equivalent, Write-N-Cite (W-N-C).  You may need to disable one or the other in order to to get the utility to work properly.
  • EndNote is programmed so that it knows whether your selected output style uses in-text citations, endnotes, or footnotes.  Using the wrong type of citation or switching between styles may cause improperly presented citations so familiarize yourself with the output style's requirements before you start inserting citations into documents.

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