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Research Guides@Tufts

Sociology (General)

A research guide designed to connect Sociology students with specialized resources and research tips.

Additional Resources

Purdue Online Writing Lab
Quick guides for MLA, APA, Chicago and tips on creating annotated bibliographies, evaluating sources, etc.

Writing Help

Citation Styles

Citation is how the scholarly conversation continues to grow and is an essential element of your work as Sociology students and scholars. Below are resources on some of the more commonly used citation styles in Sociology. However, it is always best to ask your professor about which citation style they would prefer for you to use for any given class. If you need help with citation styles, please visit the general citation guide using the link below.

ASA Style

The American Sociology Association has its own style guide for their journal, the American Sociological Review. It is closely related to the Author-Date system of Chicago-style citation.


Chicago Citation Style is used most often in historical research, although other humanities and social science disciplines sometimes use it as well. The first edition of the Chicago Manual of Style was published in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.

Chicago style actually offers two different options for in-text citations:

  1. Notes and Bibliography: Numbers within a paper correspond to footnotes (bottom of the page) or endnotes (end of the chapter or whole work). This is the more commonly used version of Chicago style, and typically this is the version people mean when they just say "Chicago."
  2.  Author-Date: This version is similar to MLA, using parenthetical in-text citations within a paper.

In both variations of Chicago, the Bibliography at the end of the paper should include complete citations for all of the sources you referenced in a paper, and may also include sources that you consulted but did not end up paraphrasing, summarizing, or quoting in the paper's text.

Citation Management Software

While staying organized is a key element of any successful research project, sometimes using a tool like citation management software can help, especially for large projects. Citation management software helps you store, organize, and generate your citations in your required citation style. It can be an amazing time-saving and organizational tool, but just like web-based citation generators (such as Citation Machine or the cite button in a library database), make sure to double check your citations and the information being input into the generator to make sure that your citations are accurate.

If you are interested in citation management software and want help setting it up, please feel free to ask a librarian for help.

Zotero is a very popular citation management software and accommodates a wide variety of disciplines and citation styles. Below is a link to a research guide explaining how to get started with Zotero from the Hirsch Health Sciences Library at the Boston Health Sciences Campus.

Social Sciences Librarian

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Cece Lasley