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Research Guides@Tufts


Additional Resources

Purdue Online Writing Lab
Quick guides for MLA, APA, Chicago and tips on creating annotated bibliographies, evaluating sources, etc.

Citation Styles

Below are some of the more common documentation styles used at the undergraduate and graduate levels. 

Be sure to check with your professor to find out which style they prefer.

ASA Style

The American Sociology Association has its own style guide for their journal, the American Sociological Review.          

For an overview of the style and examples see the Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) for the American Sociological Review style.

What are Chicago and Turabian Styles?

Citation styles from the University of Chicago Press. Used in history and political science and in other disciplines within the humanities and social sciences.  Designed for students writing term papers, Turabian is a simplified version of The Chicago Manual of Style.  Note: If you can't find a citation example in the Turabian manual, see Chicago.Cover of Chicago Manual of Syle

Chicago and Turabian provide two style options:

Notes and Bibliography.  Features: Uses footnotes, typically followed by a bibliography.  Facilitates referencing of unusual source types. Used often in the humanities, history, and business. See the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide for many examples of footnotes in many formats.

Author-Date System.  Features: In-text parenthetical citations of author(s) last name, publication year, and cited pages, followed by a reference. Used often in the sciences and social sciences.

The citation examples provided below are based on the Chicago Manual's 16th edition, published in 2010; the Chicago Q&A website provides additional information and clarifications.

Citation Manuals: