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Sino-U.S. Relations since 1900: Home

Primary/Secondary Sources

Primary Source

A document or other piece of historical evidence that is often written or created during  or near the period under study. Primary sources vary according to the nature of the topic. Some examples are: letters, manuscripts, diaries, journals, newspapers, speeches, interviews, memoirs, documents from government agencies, photographs, audio and video recordings, research data, objects and artifacts.

Secondary Source

A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. It is one step removed from the subject; it is the result of someone else's contemplation and synthesis of primary sources. Examples are: journal articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias, and textbooks.


Translating websites

Google language tools lets you:

1. type a search in English and get results in other languages

2. cut and paste from a website in one language and get a translation to another language

Primary Source Sites

Selected China Sites

Government Departments

PRC Government website in Chinese

PRC Ministry of Foreign affairs

Statistical Sites

China Data Center (University of Michigan)

National Bureau of Statistics China


Chinese Newspapers (Top 20 China News Sites)

Chinese Language News and Magazines (from MIT)

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