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Research Guides@Tufts

Fletcher Guide for Preparation of Dissertations: Footnotes OR Parenthetical Citations


The footnote numbers should be placed at the end of the passage. In the text, the number should be typed slightly above the line (half-space), and should have no punctuation, parentheses, or slashes.

Arabic numerals should be used.

The footnotes themselves should be placed in numerical order at the foot of the page. The first footnote should be separated from the text by a single line which is two spaces below the last line of text. Footnotes must begin on the page where they are referenced.

Footnotes should be single-spaced. Font size should be 1 or 2 points smaller than text font.

Subsequent (repeated) references: within one chapter, all subsequent references to an author and title that have already been cited should use the author's last name, and if necessary to distinguish, a shortened title with appropriate page numbers. When beginning a new chapter, repeat the full citation the first time the reference is used and use the short form thereafter.

The Latin abbreviation Ibid. should be used only when the same author and title are cited as in the footnote immediately preceding. If the preceding footnote contains more than one reference, Ibid. should not be used.

Parenthetical (Author-Date) References

Author-date references are placed within the text. They should be placed where they least interfere with the flow of the text, such as just before a punctuation mark.

The reference consists of the author's last (or family) name, the year of publication of the work, and the page number(s), if any. Author may mean editor, compiler, organization, or multiple authors.

No punctuation is used between the author's name and the date. A comma is used between the date and the page number, and no abbreviation for "page" is included.

In this system, the bibliography is called a reference list, and has a different format from the bibliography associated with footnotes.


Citation: (Spence 1990, 207)

Reference List: Spence, Jonathan. 1990. The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton.

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