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Research Guides@Tufts

Disinformation, Misinformation, & Fake News: General


Disinformation encompasses deliberately false or misleading information, often with an intent to manipulate, control, or confuse. Strategic disinformation is often organized and capitalizes on automated search tools to increase it's viewership. 

Misinformation is information that is inaccurate but not necessarily with a maliciously intent to manipulate, control, or confuse.

Fake News is content that is one or more of the following:

  • Hyperpartisan (displaying extreme political bias)
  • Severely lacking in credible attribution or supporting evidence
  • Old, verified news presented or repackaged as brand-new
  • Satirical or patently absurd (ex: The Onion)

Truth Sandwich: a technique in journalism to cover stories involving misinformation without unintentionally furthering the spread of false or misleading clams. It entails presenting the truth about a subject before covering misinformation, then ending a story by again presenting truth.

Pre-bunking is an idea known as inoculation theory that suggests exposing people to how misinformation works, using harmless, fictional examples, can boost their defenses to false claims.

Debunking: to show the falseness of (a story, idea, statement, etc.).

Organizations & Data


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Ellen McDonald
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Edwin Ginn Library
Fletcher School
Tufts University
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