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Research Guides@Tufts

Sociology 108/Community Health 108: Epidemics: Plagues, Peoples and Politics

For Prof. Rosemary Taylor and her students.

Citation Guide

   The Chicago Manual of Style is the citation style your professor requests you to use.

    It is available online and in the Research Hub (Room 224) Z 253 .U69.

    Examples citations and additional resources are available on the guide to the Chicago Style.

What is MLA Style?

Citation style from the Modern Language Association. For the study of literature and language; used in English, Foreign Languages, Linguistics, American Studies, and related fields in the Humanities.

Features: In-text parenthetical citations of author and page number: (Smith 123).  Endnotes or footnotes may be used to add supplementary bibliographic data or commentary. MLA style prefers endnotes over footnotes.

The citation examples provided below are based on the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook, published in 2016. The examples are intended to get you started with the basics. For more detail and many more examples, we recommend:

The MLA Style Center

Purdue OWL MLA Formatting and Style 

What is APA Style?

APA style was developed and is maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA).  It is heavily used by the social sciences, behavioral sciences, and many other disciplines.

Features: Focuses on dates the study was published; page numbers may also be cited.  Features in-text parenthetical citations of author(s) and date: (Smith, 1998). A page number also must be added for quotes taken from a specific page: (Smith, 1998, p. 123).  Endnotes or footnotes may be used to add supplementary comments.

Citation manual: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

All examples below are based on examples from the 6th edition.

Additional Help