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Research Guides@Tufts

Physical Therapy

Resources for PTs, PT students and researchers

The Importance of Citation

Why cite?

Researchers provide complete citations in order to acknowledge the use of another writers’ ideas, statements, or point of view. Neglecting this crucial step in the research process results in the creation of a plagiaristic product. Citing the work of others can be useful to readers of your research, as it enables them to access and consult the work of those you cite.


When and where do I cite?

Be sure to provide a citation when you directly quote, paraphrase text, provide a summary of someone's work, or incorporate an author's idea. Numberical in-text citations are usually placed after a name or punctuation (e.g. American Medical Association [AMA] style). Parenthetical in-text citations are usually placed within the sentence (e.g. American Psychological Association [APA] or Modern Language Association [MLA] style).


How do I know that I have documented the work of another in proper detail and format?

Style manuals published by the AMA, APA, and MLA and listed below provide the basis for our examples. For detailed information about these and other styles, you may also consult the style manager in citation-management software or a librarian.


NOTE: Some publications require a specific citation style. Many of these can be found in the citation management programs we support, or can be created by modifying a similar style. Always check the publication's publishing guidelines.

Citation Management

Citation management programs are time-saving tools that allow you to:

  • Create libraries of citations that have been directly exported from databases or entered by hand
  • Organize citations into folders and subfolders
  • Upload and store PDF documents with their citations
  • Insert citations into word processing documents and format bibliographies in a variety of styles

Popular citation management programs on the Boston campus include:

  • Zotero
  • EndNote
  • Mendeley

To learn more or request instruction, please contact the Hirsh Health Sciences Library.

For even more information about these useful programs, please see the Tisch Library's guide:

EndNote Introduction


What is it?

  • Paid citation management software installed on your personal computer.
  • Discounts for faculty, staff and students found here (scroll down to Thomas Reuters).
  • Automatically import citations from databases
  • Organize citations into folders
  • Share folders of citations via EndNote Web
  • Download PDFs and attach them to citation records 
  • Create citations automatically from PDFs 
  • Insert tables/figures into Microsoft Word documents along with captions.


Getting Started:

EndNote: The Basics - A guide from HHSL

Tisch Library Guide to EndNote - A guide from the Medford Campus

Yale University Guide to EndNote - videos and PDFs

EndNote Tutorial Library - Video tutorials produced by Thomson Reuters

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